Since the mid-1980s, most developing countries launched decentralization reforms. At least sixty claim to be devolving some natural resource management functions. These reforms are lauded for their potential to increase efficiency, equity, democracy and resource sustainability in the local arena. But what is taking place in the name of decentralization? Is the discourse on decentralization being codified in law? Are the laws being translated into practice? What are the effects of the reforms that are taking place? Natural resource decentralizations provide powerful insights into these questions-for natural resource decentralizations and for decentralizations writ large.
In recent years, the way open source software is developed has taken hold as a valid alternative to commercial proprietary methods, as have the products themselves, e.g., the Linux operating system, Apache web-server software, and Mozilla Firefox browser. But what is open source software? How is the open source community organized? What makes this new model successful? What effects has it had and might it have on the future of the IT industry, companies and government policies? These and many other questions are answered in this book.The first chapter gives a brief history of the open source community and the second chapter takes a close look at the relationship between intellectual property rights and software, both open source and proprietary. The next three chapters consider the who, the open source community, the how, software development both within and outside the community, and the what, open source projects and product quality. Chapters 6 and 7 focus on the different users of open source software: companies and governments respectively. These are followed by two chapters that interpret the phenomenon, first from an organizational point of view in Chapter 8 and then using the theory of complex adaptive systems in Chapter 9. The last chapter explores the current and potential applications of the concept underlying open source software in other fields.
Predictions are that sustainability becomes the next big topic for Human Resource Management after internationalization and globalization. This book gives new answers to these questions: - How can HRM contribute to attracting, developing and retaining highly qualified human resources over time? - How can a paradox perspective contribute to understanding and coping with paradoxical tensions? - How can sustainability be used as a 'deliberate strategy' for HRM?
The conceptual part of the book looks at the notion of sustainability, opens it up for Strategic HRM and identifies blind spots in Strategic HRM theory. Paradox theory is introduced as an analytical framework for Sustainable HRM. Initial suggestions are made for sustainability strategies and for coping with paradoxes and tensions. The exploratory part examines how 50 European Multinationals communicate their understanding of sustainability and HRM and which HR issues and practices they are linking to the topic.
The topic of leadership has grown in importance, and how and when managers communicate is critical to their effectiveness. This book provides insight for managers to understand the feedback and open communication processes. It suggests guidelines for how and when managers should engage in negative feedback and open organizational-level communication with followers, including when such feedback and information should not be shared. It also adds to the existing knowledge base pertaining to open communication on the part of managers.
This book will be of value to managers and practitioners involved in the practice of leadership as well as for courses on leadership, organizational behavior, human resource management and organizational communication.
Friday Afternoon Geography is packed with fun and engaging revision activities. The activities have been chosen to allow students to apply their knowledge using a variety of learning styles, and to review and reinforce their understanding of key terms and concepts. These enjoyable activities make revision exercises fun and can be used at any point within a lesson. The pack is fully photocopiable and once the teacher has a set of cards prepared they can be used over and over with all groups, bringing variety and fun to any revision session. The free CD also includes all the content from the pack plus PowerPoint files for front of class teaching. Also included in the pack: a specification matching chart to allow easy integration into any course, answers, suggested timings and teaching notes.